Connect with us

General

The American Muckrakers Who Spoke Truth to Power

Published

on

In the antebellum period, American newspapers were growing in tandem with the westward expansion of capital. An economic boom in the burgeoning market economy ushered in the invention of the telegraph and faster printing presses, allowing publishers to broaden their circulation. After passage of the Thirteenth Amendment and formation of the reservation system, a new branch of journalism emerged outside the news business to challenge racism and corruption among capitalists and politicians. Some of the earliest examples of investigative reporting reveal that much of the colonial free press served as a mouthpiece for industrialists who were profiting off an oppressed, enslaved workforce.

“Muckraking,” as it became known in the twentieth century, developed in response to unfettered growth in private wealth and extreme bias in corporate news outlets. Independent journalists, many of them women, wrote in-depth investigations on resource- and labor-extractive industries, opening the public’s eyes to injustices that mainstream newspapers refused to report. This style of writing, which investigated many of the most powerful men of the Gilded Age and provided the receipts, stood in stark opposition to the overly sensational “yellow journalism” of the time. President Theodore Roosevelt would eventually call these journalists “muckrakers” due to the so-called dirty work being done in McClure’s Magazine and elsewhere, but many of them viewed his description of their labor as condescending.

Rather than charting a gradual degradation in American journalism, the archives of these writers reveal that national newspapers were long entangled in the defense of the status quo. Early investigations unraveled the racist underpinnings of Manifest Destiny and class interests that allowed hate groups like the Ku Klux Klan to operate in league with national newspapers. Ex-slaves in the Deep South wrote exposés on segregation and lynching in self-published newspapers and pamphlets. Likewise, native tribes wrote on their struggles with the US cavalry, vigilante militias, and the Bureau of Indian Affairs, connecting across tribal lines as the federal government sought to divide and conquer. From the Jim Crow era through the Great Depression, each report points to the inadequacy of national newspapers in speaking truth to power.

Early commercial and political newspapers were published largely for commercial and political elites. Large daily newspapers were only available by yearly subscriptions of around eight to ten dollars, which wage laborers earning the average forty cents to one dollar per day could hardly afford. That all changed with the emergence of the first African American and native newspapers, followed by the introduction of the “penny press” in 1830.

Freedom’s Journal, founded in 1827 by John Russwurm and Samuel Cornish, urged free black workers to publish their views without dependence on white abolitionists and their press. Based in New York, the Journal ran commentaries and news stories linking whiteness with criminality to break stereotypes around African-American life. While the paper only published for a few years, it would inspire other black abolitionists to realize the power of the press, such as Frederick Douglass, whose North Star challenged the white intelligentsia to confront its own racism leading up to the Civil War.

The passing of the Emancipation Proclamation expanded access to secondary education and printing presses for freed slaves, multiplying black-owned newspapers throughout the South. In Tennessee, the Memphis Free Speech and Headlight published long-form reports debunking racist media narratives promoted in white newspapers. Ida B. Wells, herself born into slavery, began writing for the Free Speech in the 1890s as a one-third partner. Her friend, postman and grocer Thomas Moss, had recently been killed in the People’s Grocery lynchings after a white store owner provoked Moss and two of his fellow workers into a skirmish. A white mob seized and murdered them while in police custody, leading Wells to pursue justice through public exposure.

In an editorial published soon after, Wells urged black residents of Memphis to flee the city for their own safety. Two months later, she published another article debunking racist rape accusations against black men, pointing to the “old thread-bare lie” manufactured by white supremacists to justify public lynchings. Within a few days, the Daily Commercial called Wells a “black scoundrel” who tested the “wonderful patience of Southern whites.” Another white newspaper, the Daily Scimitar, republished the article and issued an actual threat of violence, leading another white mob to ransack and destroy the Free Speech office. Wells, who was on holiday in Harlem, decided not to go back.

Throughout the 1890s, Wells carried out investigations on lynchings that implicated the laws allowing them and the public figures who participated. In her 1892 pamphlet Southern Horrors: Lynch Law in All Its Phases, Wells details the legal loopholes granted to Southern white men outraged at the consenting relationships their female spouses, relatives, and friends elicited with black men, pointing to power dynamics established by slavery and still in place during Jim Crow. Women who confessed to consenting relations with black men were harbored safely, while those protecting men who impregnated them were accused of “fearful depravity and rank outrage.”

This was a double standard, Wells argues, as white men were notorious for nonconsensual sexual relations with black free women and slaves, many resulting in pregnancy. Likewise, white men who assaulted black women seldom faced serious consequences, with some becoming police detectives shortly after serving brief sentences. Wells calls out white militias for manufacturing these rumors as an excuse to build out their at-home caches of cannons and rifles. She also condemns South Carolina governor Benjamin Ryan Tillman, who stood at the base of a lynching tree and declared he would happily lead the mob himself, as well as Tennessee governor John P. Buchanan for overseeing the lynching of Ephraim Grizzard alongside state militiamen and police.

“The mob spirit has grown with the increasing intelligence of the Afro-American,” Wells wrote. “It has left the out-of-the-way places where ignorance prevails, has thrown off the mask and with this new cry stalks in broad daylight in large cities, the centers of civilization, and is encouraged by the ‘leading citizens’ and the press.”

Wells saw how white newspapers concocted crime-wave narratives to fuel what she called “lynching mania,” pointing to inconsistencies in their “unreliable and doctored” reports. She argued that the logic of the plantation had transferred to surveillance, social control, and punishment of black workers by white landowners — all fueled by an aggressive, corporate-owned press. The 1883 repeal of the Civil Rights Act led Southern states to pass segregation laws with penalties against infringement, and Wells writes that white women’s innocence was a “plausible screen” for elites to justify continued resentment toward African Americans.

“Men who stand high in the esteem of the public for Christian character, for moral and physical courage, for devotion to the principles of equal and exact justice to all, and for great sagacity, stand as cowards who fear to open their mouths before this great outrage,” Wells said. “They do not see that by their tacit encouragement, their silent acquiescence, the black shadow of lawlessness in the form of lynch law is spreading its wings over the whole country.”

Wells urged the public to see what had passed as ordinary behavior in the postwar South, eventually resettling in Chicago with her husband, fellow journalist Ferdinand Lee Barnett. Before her generation, she claimed, the only news that went out into the world was that which labeled black people as “a race of cutthroats, robbers, and lustful wild beasts.”

Wells acknowledged that black labor was the “backbone of the South” during Reconstruction and that its withholding could choke the flow of Northern capital. She ends Southern Horrors by calling for a boycott of the railroad companies in the aftermath of the Jim Crow car law, urging black Americans to arm themselves and conduct investigations of their own.

The turn of the twentieth century saw lynchings decrease in quantity but increase in intensity. The Chicago Defender, then the most popular African-American newspaper in the country, urged black Southerners to migrate north. The exodus of black workers negatively affected the Southern economy, as Wells predicted, through labor shortages. White newspapers in the South, which had long promoted lynching and deportations to Mexico or Africa, concocted conspiracies about labor agents infiltrating the black workforce.

This period also saw the birth of yellow journalism in white-owned Northern newspapers. By that time, a media war had erupted between William Randolph Hearst’s New York Journal and Joseph Pulitzer’s New York Press, which both became known for publishing sensationalized articles to increase circulation and profits. While this elite turf war grew into public spectacle, actual land disputes had heightened between white settlers and indigenous tribes, partially at the encouragement of a professional media class that whitewashed the government’s war on indigeneity. An 1871 rider on the Indian Appropriations Act had officially ended US recognition of several tribes as independent nations, and the Dawes Act of 1887 further subdivided native lands from collective tribal ownership to individual properties.

Elite newspapers had long depicted natives as uncivilized outlaws, pushing the narrative that land commodification and the enforcement of private property would lift natives out of poverty. The St Paul Daily Globe reported that the Oceti Sakowin were “in great luck” for their newly appointed ability to own farms, many of which were on barren, undesirable lands. Throughout the nineteenth century, the US government similarly used newspapers to manufacture consent while forcing tribes off their ancestral lands.

In the rapidly developing Western states, editorials in such far-ranging papers as the Montana Post, Denver’s Daily Rocky Mountain News, and Phoenix’s Salt River Herald all portrayed indigenous tribes as unwelcome, violent mobs perpetually on the offensive against benevolent pioneers. Some referred to them as “savages” unfriendly to white missionaries, and many promoted racist stereotypes in political cartoons.

This rhetoric echoed the Supreme Court’s 1823 decision legitimizing the “right to extinguish Indian title of occupancy” that labeled tribes as “fierce savages whose occupation was war and whose subsistence was drawn chiefly from the forest.” Natives became intertwined in legal and political battles against their will, with white elites speaking for them in the mainstream press. As early as 1828, indigenous writers tried founding their own newspapers for discussing the violence wrought on their communities, largely in partnership with white missionaries. The Cherokee Phoenix, the first bilingual indigenous newspaper, published articles on land disputes leading up to the 1830 Indian Removal Act. By 1835, however, the state of Georgia would seize their presses and forcibly remove the Cherokees to Oklahoma during the Trail of Tears.

The mid-nineteenth century saw the rise of similar newspapers, such as the Dakota Friend, the Cheyenne Transporter, the Progress, and the Indian Journal — many of them only publishing for a few years. Despite their efforts, white journalist Helen Hunt Jackson was more successful in popularizing indigenous struggle with her 1881 book A Century of Dishonor. Paiute writer Sarah Winnemucca managed to reach wider audiences with her memoir, Life Among the Paiutes: Their Wrongs and Claims, which gives a first-person history of colonial violence during the first decades of her tribe’s contact with white settlers. Winnemucca, whose relatives were murdered by US cavalry, exposed patterns of abuse among military and government officials. She also called out the hypocrisy of the national press for prioritizing testimonies of colonial agents over tribal leaders.

This joint project of disenfranchisement allowed government officials and business elites to extract resources from indigenous land under the guise of humanitarian aid. Through the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA), the federal government converted native lands into national parks, used reservation water for irrigation while indigenous-owned farms dried up, and let cattle graze in their fields — betraying the treaties that originally designated land only for native use. The BIA spent tribal money without permission and made their laws, offering little opportunity for success in court. From 1887 to 1920, Bureau expenses soared from $5 million to $15 million. Yavapai-Apache medical doctor Carlos Montezuma (born Wassaja, which translates to “beckoning” or “signaling”) scrutinized how the government enforced private ownership over lands that native families could hardly afford to maintain, especially if a bad harvest befell them. Thus, in stripping tribes of their own land — then enforcing financial autonomy — federal authorities and private corporations worked in lockstep to confine indigenous life within a permanent state of subjugation.

Montezuma regularly called for the abolition of the BIA in his activism and writing. His investigations on the declining quality of native life — published in his Wassaja newsletter — reflected his belief that indigenous workers should organize with the proletarian masses to protect tribal land, water, and culture. In editorials, he argued that natives were fighting America’s wars despite living like animals on undesirable lands, and he compared government-adjacent groups like the Indian Rights Association to the Chicago Police Department (“when they are most needed, they are not there”). Montezuma also published letters from native readers to foster the kinds of intertribal dialogue that the US government sought to stifle.

In the March 1922 issue of Wassaja, Montezuma condemns the BIA’s failure to lift natives out of poverty despite its bloated budget:

How has this gigantic organization, with its tremendous expenses, been built up? How has it been possible to not only perpetuate, but to increase greatly, the task definitely undertaken thirty years ago, that of making competent, self-supporting Americans out of some 300,000 assimilable American Indians. It could be done in but one way — making the Indians incompetent and keeping them incompetent. The system depends upon branding the Indian race as inferior and incapable of looking out for their own welfare and taking care of themselves.

Winnemucca and Montezuma were foundational in exposing violent, reactionary symptoms of American colonialism at a time when newspaper magnates like Hearst were capitalizing on indigenous lands and creating local publications to whitewash their reputation. Their writings existed outside the realm of white mediation and laid the groundwork for progressive legislation, such as full US citizenship and the right to vote, as well as the Red Power movement of the mid-twentieth century. While mainstream papers eventually admitted native writers, cultural preservation and land repatriation remain unresolved due in large part to the business side of news, which continues to profit on indigenous suffering.

The Progressive Era’s social reforms reigned in aggressive capitalists who amassed their wealth in extractive industries during the Gilded Age. Renowned muckraker Ida Tarbell was just a teenager when she watched oil tycoon John D. Rockefeller pressure her father into selling his independent oil business. Throughout the 1870s, Rockefeller’s South Improvement Company had raised shipping fees on smaller companies while providing kickbacks to Pennsylvania, Erie, and New York Central railroads. When anonymous sources leaked this information to newspapers, small business owners organized protests and sabotaged company property.

Rockefeller still managed to sway enough small producers to buy into what would become Standard Oil using capital leverage and fear tactics. Tarbell’s father refused and was forced into debt, and his business partner committed suicide. This early experience, along with the lasting effects of the Cleveland Massacre, influenced Tarbell’s development first as a teacher then as a reformer. From her earliest articles in the Chicago Tribune and Scribner’s, she wrote with a sense of righteous morality. Her early essays for McClure’s Magazine, where she worked as a staff writer, focused on particular historical figures like Napoleon Bonaparte and Abraham Lincoln. The success of these essays granted her more creative freedom as the magazine shifted its editorial strategy to “expose the ills of American society” in the 1910s.

Tarbell relished the opportunity to publicize the scheme underlying Standard Oil’s monopoly on the fossil fuel industry. In nineteen parts, she laid out the clandestine deals Rockefeller made with transportation companies that allowed him to beat and buy out his competitors. To accomplish this, Tarbell obtained internal company documents, conducted interviews with workers and lawyers, and — with the help of Mark Twain — recorded her conversations with senior executive Henry H. Rogers. While kickbacks and backdoor bargaining were common practices among powerful corporations, Tarbell exposed how Standard Oil’s “ruthless efficiency of organization” allowed Rockefeller to maintain dominance and silence all dissent:

“He was like a general who, besieging a city surrounded by fortified hills, views from a balloon the whole great field, and sees how, this point taken, that must fall; this hill reached, that fort is commanded,” she wrote. “And nothing was too small: the corner grocery in Browntown, the humble refining still on Oil Creek, the shortest private pipe line. Nothing, for little things grow.”

Tarbell pushed public outrage over the limit and brought on the breakup of Standard Oil, following a 1911 Supreme Court ruling that the company violated the Sherman Antitrust Act. She fueled rising antitrust sentiment by laying bare what many had already suspected: that the history of capitalist expansion was one of deceit, secrecy, and unregulated consolidation of power. Along with contemporaries Upton Sinclair and Florence Kelley, Tarbell helped popularize the budding genre among left-wing journalists that would become known as “muckraking,” drawing from the long history of independent investigations.

Today’s corporate media continues to parrot ruling-class ideology despite adopting muckraking into its editorial purview. This is a product of the industry’s efforts to appear impartial, despite the fact that at the end of the day, it will always come to the defense of capitalism, private property, and policing. Mainstream investigative journalists, therefore, might still end up perpetuating State Department myths about communism and prioritizing statistics over material conditions in crime reports.

On top of that, many of their publications — including CNN, Fox News, and the New York Times — are becoming as increasingly partisan as the Gilded Age newspapers that upheld dominant ideological commitments through every subsequent era of reform, reflecting only in hindsight. Other popular news publications like the New York Post and National Review are rehashing the culture wars as they continue to attack workers and all people of color as they have throughout the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.

In our contemporary era of widespread inequality and wealth consolidation, corporate media ensures that working-class demands get treated as too pricey and unprecedented. We need an independent media that can play the same role as the muckrakers of the -nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries, holding power accountable while envisioning a more equitable future.




Source link

Continue Reading
Click to comment

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.

General

Pritzker says balanced budget, ‘big things’ remain priority ahead of second term

Published

on

By

Inflation, crime, pandemic response, abortion rights and Donald Trump are all set to be major issues in the 2022 race for Illinois governor, if the winning candidates’ election night speeches are any guide.

“(Gov. JB) Pritzker doesn’t understand how skyrocketing gas prices and soaring food prices make everyday life harder for Illinois families like you and I,” Darren Bailey, the Republican nominee for governor, said in an election night victory speech.

A farmer and state senator from downstate Xenia who acknowledged to the Chicago Sun-Times this week that he is a millionaire, Bailey received the endorsement of former President Donald Trump and coasted to an election night victory with 57 percent of the vote, compared to about 15 percent for each of the next two closest competitors.

“He doesn’t understand how his and Joe Biden’s extreme national agenda helps fuel inflation and increases utility bills for families like us across Illinois,” Bailey added of the governor. “He doesn’t understand the damage that his lockdowns did to small businesses, schools, mental health and working families all across this state. He doesn’t understand that his war on police has fueled the war on our streets, making our neighborhoods dangerous all across this state.”

Bailey also said in his speech that he entered politics because he was displeased with his local representatives’ votes to end a historic two-year budget impasse in 2017 by raising the income tax rate to 4.95 percent, a level slightly lower than it was when the impasse began two years prior.

The income tax vote was part of the budget package that saw Democrats and Republicans come together to override the veto of former Republican Gov. Bruce Rauner.

Pritzker, meanwhile, considers it part of his first-term legacy that Illinois has left the politics of the impasse behind it and taken strides to balance the budget each year and pay down old debt.

The governor sat for an interview with Capitol News Illinois Thursday amid a two-day blitz in which he spoke with political reporters from across the state.

He said fiscal prudence – along with pandemic-era revenue spikes that were seen nationwide for many reasons – allowed him and lawmakers to pass $1.8 billion in tax relief this budget year, some of which took effect July 1.

It included a one-year suspension of the 1 percent grocery tax, a six-month delay on a 2-cent motor fuel tax hike, a 10-day partial sales tax holiday on back-to-school items from Aug. 5-14, a permanent expansion of the earned income tax credit, an additional $300 in property tax credit, and direct payments to Illinoisans at $50 per person and $100 per dependent child.

“Those are all things that we Democrats did and were able to do because Democrats balanced the budget, Democrats eliminated the bill backlog, Democrats got the credit upgrades for the state,” he said, referring to double upgrades the state has received from the three New York bond rating agencies in the past year.

“You can’t do any of those items of tax relief if you don’t have the dollars to do it,” he added. “And we had surpluses and what did we do? We provided relief to working family. And we’re gonna look to do that going forward. I might add, if you keep on the path that Democrats have set, that I’ve set, balancing budgets and having surpluses, we can do much more.”

He said he’s hopeful to continue balancing the books even though the state expects revenues to slow as pandemic-driven spikes normalize.

Pritzker touted the state’s use of unexpected revenues for one-time purposes, such as putting $1 billion in the budget stabilization fund, funding pensions $500 million above what is required in law and paying down old health insurance bills amounting to about $900 million.

He also noted the state has, under his watch, increased investments in the Illinois State Police, crime labs, expressway cameras, and youth violence intervention programs.

The one-term incumbent who unseated Rauner with a 16-point victory in 2018 also touched on his spending in the Republican primary in recent months.

While he spent money through his own campaign committee, the Democratic Party of Illinois and the Democratic Governors Association to knock Bailey’s chief primary rival, Aurora Mayor Richard Irvin, he downplayed the role his money played in that election.

Irvin’s camp has pegged the combined spending of those entities in the GOP primary at roughly $36 million.

“My message is a general election message against all of the Republicans,” he said. “You know, we had messages about the candidate who was talking about corruption in Illinois, when he himself was involved in corruption. We had messages about the candidate who is truly extreme on every issue, including choice. And, you know, we’re fighting the Republicans, this is about Democrats beating Republicans.”

In the coming days, Pritzker said he will call lawmakers back to Springfield for a special session to secure abortion rights, which could include increasing the number of medical professionals who can perform abortions. It will not include providing state aid for people traveling to Illinois to receive an abortion, he said.

In terms of a second-term agenda, Pritzker said continuing the fiscal practices of his first term, as well as increasing subsidies for education and child care are among his priorities.

“But I think that looking back at my first term in office, gives you an idea that we’re gonna get more big things done, and they’re going to be about lifting up working families,” he said.

You can listen to the full episode of Capitol Cast here.

Capitol News Illinois is a nonprofit, nonpartisan news service covering state government that is distributed to more than 400 newspapers statewide. It is funded primarily by the Illinois Press Foundation and the Robert R. McCormick Foundation.

Copyright 2022 WSIU Public Radio. To see more, visit WSIU Public Radio.




Source link

Continue Reading

General

Deals, delays and COVID rules: Tips for travelers booking a getaway for summer and fall | Ap

Published

on

By

Experts offer these tips for traveling this summer and fall:

— If you see a deal you like, take it. It may not last.


This page requires Javascript.

Javascript is required for you to be able to read premium content. Please enable it in your browser settings.

kAm— (96E96C J@F’C6 EC2G6=:?8 :?D:56 E96 &?:E65 $E2E6D @C 36J@?5[ 36 AC6A2C65 7@C 56=2JD] z66A J@FC E@@E93CFD9[ 2== >65:42E:@?D 2?5 2 492?86 @7 6DD6?E:2=D 😕 J@FC 42CCJ\@? =F88286] v6E E@ E96 2:CA@CE 62C=J[ 2?5 2G@:5 4964<:?8 =F88286 :7 A@DD:3=6]k^Am

kAm— !2J 2EE6?E:@? E@ 6>2:=D 7C@> J@FC 2:C=:?6] $@>6 2=6CE J@F E@ 7=:89E 42?46==2E:@?D @C 492?86Dj @E96CD 25G:D6 9@H E@ FA=@25 G244:?2E:@? 5@4F>6?ED 😕 25G2?46 E@ 4FE J@FC E:>6 😕 E96 2:CA@CE =:?6]k^Am

kAm— v@E 6IEC2 E:>6n r964< E96 562=D 7@C 8:G:?8 FA J@FC D62E] |:2>: =2HJ6C |:496==6 }:6>6J6C D?28865 Shd_ 😕 2:C=:?6 4C65:E 3J EC25:?8 96C D62E @? 2 C646?E 7=:89E 7C@> q@DE@? E@ |:2>: 7@C @?6 @? 2 7=:89E h_ >:?FE6D =2E6C]k^Am

kAmU>52D9j x7 J@FUCDBF@jC6 EC2G6=:?8 23C@25[ 36 2H2C6 E92E >2?J 4@F?EC:6D C6BF:C6 G244:?2E:@?j 4964< 56E2:=D 2E k2 9C67lQ9EEAi^^EC2G6=]DE2E6]8@GQmEC2G6=]DE2E6]8@Gk^2m] u@C6:8? 4:E:K6?D H9@ 2C6 ?@E &]$] C6D:56?ED 2C6 DE:== C6BF:C65 E@ 36 G244:?2E65 2?5 E@ E6DE AC:@C E@ 6?E6C:?8 E96 &]$]k^Am

kAmU>52D9j &D6 2:C72C6 EC24<:?8 D:E6D WDF49 2D k2 9C67lQ9EEAi^^72C64@>A2C6]4@>Qm72C64@>A2C6]4@>k^2m[ k2 9C67lQ9EEAi^^D>2CE6CEC2G6=]4@>QmD>2CE6CEC2G6=]4@>k^2m[ k2 9C67lQ9EEAi^^D<JD42??6C]4@>QmD<JD42??6C]4@>k^2m @C k2 9C67lQ9EEAi^^2:C72C6H2E495@8]4@>Qm2:C72C6H2E495@8]4@>k^2mX E@ DE2J FA E@ 52E6 H:E9 72C6D @? J@FC 72G@C:E6 C@FE6D]k^Am

kAm— x7 J@F 92G6 2 AC676CC65 4CF:D6 =:?6[ D:8? FA 7@C :ED 6>2:= 3=2DED] x7 ?@E[ 2D< 2 4CF:D6 286?E E@ 7:?5 J@F 2 32C82:? E92E H:== DF:E J@FC ?665D]k^Am

kAm— p== EC2G6=6CD @? &]$] 4CF:D6D 2C6 C6BF:C65 E@ 36 G244:?2E65j >@DE =:?6D 2=D@ C6BF:C6 2 ?682E:G6 r~’xs E6DE cg 9@FCD 😕 25G2?46 @7 D2:=:?8]k^Am

kAm— r@?D:56C FD:?8 2 EC2G6= 286?E @C 3@@<:?8 2 E@FC] x7 J@F 86E 56=2J65 @C :?E@ 2 ;2>[ E96 286?E @C @A6C2E@C 😀 E96C6 E@ 96=A]k^Am

kAmU>52D9j x7 J@FUCDBF@jC6 3@@<:?8 2 4CF:D6[ E@FC @C >2<:?8 DF3DE2?E:2= A2J>6?ED FA 7C@?E[ E9:?< 23@FE EC2G6= :?DFC2?46 E92E 4@G6CD 56=2JD[ 5:DCFAE:@?[ >65:42= 4@DED 2?5 6G24F2E:@?] }@H\4@>>@? 2:C=:?6 56=2JD 42? FA6?5 A=2?D] p >65:42= 6G24F2E:@? 42? 4@DE >@C6 E92? S`__[___] |65:42C6 5@6D ?@E 4@G6C &]$] 4:E:K6?D EC2G6=:?8 @G6CD62D] q6 DFC6 J@F FD6 2 9:89=J C2E65 :?56A6?56?E :?DFC2?46 4@>A2?J U>52D9j ?@E 2 5:G:D:@? @7 J@FC EC2G6= DFAA=:6C] %2=<:?8 H:E9 2 BF2=:7:65 286?E 367@C6 J@F 3FJ J@FC A@=:4J 😀 9:89=J 25G:D65 2D A@=:4:6D 2?5 36?67:ED G2CJ H:56=Jj 36 DFC6 E@ A2J 2EE6?E:@? E@ AC66I:DE:?8 >65:42= 6I4=FD:@?D] %H@ 8@@5 A=246D E@ DE2CEi k2 9C67lQ9EEAi^^:?DFC6>JEC:A]4@>Qm:?DFC6>JEC:A]4@>k^2m 2?5 k2 9C67lQ9EEAi^^DBF2C6>@FE9]4@>QmDBF2C6>@FE9]4@>k^2m]k^Am

kAm— w@E6=D 2?5 7=:89ED EJA:42==J 2C6 =62DE 6IA6?D:G6 7@C >:5H66< EC2G6=] %96 6I46AE:@? 😀 😕 3FD:?6DD\@C:6?E65 4:E:6D[ H96C6 9@E6=D >2J @776C H66<6?5 562=D]k^Am

kAmU>52D9j %96 4962A6DE 52J E@ 3FJ 2:C72C6D 😀 ?@H %9FCD52J[ 244@C5:?8 E@ k2 9C67lQ9EEAi^^>65:2]9@AA6C]4@>Qm>65:2]9@AA6C]4@>k^2m]k^Am

kAm— q67@C6 J@F 3@@< J@FC 7=:89E[ 4964< 7@C 255:E:@?2= 766D 7@C D62E 2DD:8?>6?ED[ 42CCJ\@? 328D 2?5 4964< =F88286 E@ 56E6C>:?6 E96 7F== AC:46] %C2G6= 25G@42E6 r9C:DE@A96C t==:@E C64@>>6?5D 7@C68@:?8 @776CD E@ AFC492D6 4964<65 328D 😕 25G2?46 2?5 :?DE625 ;FDE E2<6 E96> E@ E96 2:CA@CEj @7E6? E96 2:C=:?6 H:== @776C E@ 4964< 7@C 7C66]k^Am

kAm— x7 J@F EC2G6= >@C6 E92? 2 76H E:>6D 2 J62C[ :E >2J 36 H@CE9 6?C@==:?8 😕 E96 %CFDE65 %C2G6=6C AC@8C2> @C v=@32= t?ECJ WS`__X] q@E9 AC@G:56 %$p !C6 D6CG:46[ H9:49 92D 565:42E65 D64FC:EJ =2?6D 2E >2;@C 2:CA@CED E92E 2==@H J@F E@ =62G6 4@>AFE6CD 😕 J@FC 328 2?5 <66A J@FC D9@6D @?] v=@32= t?ECJ 2==@HD J@F E@ DA665 E9C@F89 A2DDA@CE 4964<D H:E9 E96 2:5 @7 2? 6=64EC@?:4 <:@D<]k^Am

kAm©a_aa |:2>: w6C2=5] ‘:D:E k2 9C67lQ9EEADi^^HHH]>:2>:96C2=5]4@>^Qm>:2>:96C2=5]4@>k^2m] s:DEC:3FE65 3J k2 9C67lQ9EEADi^^HHH]EC:3F?64@?E6?E286?4J]4@>Qm%C:3F?6 r@?E6?E p86?4J[ {{r]k^2mk^Am

Copyright 2022 Tribune Content Agency.


Source link

Continue Reading

Fourth of July

Happy Fourth of July!! – Corruption, Crime & Compliance

Published

on

By

To all of our clients, colleagues, family and friends, we wish you a Happy Fourth of July.

While we live in a difficult and troubling time, please take a moment to embrace gratitude and respect for all those who have sacrificed to secure our freedoms. Together, we can continue America’s unique history of freedom.

Have a terrific holiday!!


Source link

Continue Reading
Police Brutality6 mins ago

HasanAbi reacts to BASED Asmongold

New York34 mins ago

I Spent 24 Hours as Hitman in GTA 5 RP..

Civil Rights Violations37 mins ago

Nightly News Full Broadcast – July 1

Military Corruption38 mins ago

Ukraine—Neocon's war against Russia | Salim Mansur

Police Bribery46 mins ago

She Scammed NYC Using This FB Ad

World52 mins ago

FACT-CHECK: How true is Buhari’s claim that Nigeria is better off today than in 2015?

Police Brutality1 hour ago

The United States has Declared War Against its own Marginalized Population Part 1

New York2 hours ago

NEW PODCAST feat. Nathan De Asha, Brett Wilkin & Martin Fitzwater NAME THIS SHOW!

Civil Rights Violations2 hours ago

R. Kelly sentenced to 30 years in prison for sex abuse

Military Corruption2 hours ago

indian army ki corruption aur naehli se india ka 1 aur defence project fail ho gaya. defence mafia

North America2 hours ago

Biometric System Market Worth $51.6 Billion by 2029

Police Bribery2 hours ago

[𝗕𝗿𝗲𝗮𝗸𝗶𝗻𝗴] 𝗧𝗥𝗨𝗠𝗣 𝗰𝗮𝗹𝗹𝗲𝗱 ''𝗘𝗠𝗘𝗥𝗚𝗘𝗡𝗖𝗬 𝗣𝗥𝗘𝗦𝗦 𝗠𝗘𝗘𝗧𝗜𝗡𝗚'' 𝗼𝗻 𝟰𝗧𝗛 𝗝𝗨𝗟𝗬 !! 𝗧𝗥𝗨𝗠𝗣 𝗨𝗣𝗗𝗔𝗧𝗘 𝗡𝗘𝗪𝗦 𝗧𝟬𝗗𝗔𝗬

General2 hours ago

Pritzker says balanced budget, ‘big things’ remain priority ahead of second term

World2 hours ago

Papua New Guinea begins voting in key elections | News

Police Brutality2 hours ago

thank you all for supporting us, keep calling 999 101, to complain of police brutality, and rape

World8 months ago

Albanian Daily News

North America9 months ago

Administration’s Anti-Corruption Efforts Likely to Yield Greater FCPA Enforcement in Latin America and Beyond | Womble Bond Dickinson

Military Corruption6 months ago

Judy Byington intel Restored Republic via a GCR update 9 January 2022 US News Today

North America8 months ago

Heidi Planck missing update – Jason Sugarman ‘probed over a $43M fraud’ as Reddit & Webslueth users seek LinkedIn clues

Military Corruption6 months ago

Nicholas Veniamin with Michelle Fielding: TRUMP WIN and ROLL OUT, QUANTUM SYSTEM, MILITARY!

World6 months ago

Prison governor arrested over bribery and drugs allegations at Wormwood Scrubs

North America9 months ago

Brian Laundrie timeline – What Gabby’s fiancé did as throttled body lay outside from camping with sister to hitchhiking

World9 months ago

Behind the blue line: Investigating Abdullah Shah

General9 months ago

Who Is Curtis Sliwa? A Look at the GOP Mayoral Candidate’s Wild Ride in New York

North America9 months ago

Former Boeing 737 MAX Chief Technical Pilot Indicted for Fraud | USAO-NDTX

North America9 months ago

Brian Laundrie update: Where does the search stand now?

General9 months ago

U.S. Arrests Alex Saab, Deal Maker for Nicolás Maduro of Venezuela

Police Bribery6 months ago

AROUND 30 U.S STATES HAVE ACTIVATED THEIR NATIONAL GUARD

North America9 months ago

Gabby Petito autopsy update – John Walsh ID Special Report ‘claims Brian Laundrie is in Mexico’ as fiance still missing

North America9 months ago

Founder of Russian Bank Pleads Guilty to Tax Fraud | OPA

ailoq.com

Trending